Topic: IPSC-plus for the masses...
Did you ever want to grow replacement organs, tasty steaks, or sex partners in your basement from a cheek swab? Well, welcome to the biohacking forum, which is, in fact, about just that.
We have no idea if vatgrown autocannabalism actually is vegan, but hey.
Step one is to revert your own stem cells - to take cells that aren't stem cells, such as your cheek lining, and turn them into cells which can do anything. And we plan to do this with stuff that would be off-the-shelf to the average mostly-broke homeless person, or suitable for stem-cell therapy in a post-civ catastrophe in the 'survivorman-of-indeterminate-gender' phase.
The first reprogramming to pluripotent stem cells was undertaken by Shinya Yamanaka (Kyoto University, 2006). By removing genetic manipulation from their full list, they found the four minimum genes required to revert a cell to a pluripotent stem cell.
Oct4 : Oc3 is equally effective, while the rest of the Oct family is not.
Sox2 : Sox1 is equally effective, while Sox3, Sox15, and Sox18 work, but with decreased efficiency.
cMyc : totally a carcinogenic oncogene. nMyc and lMyc are equally effective.
Klf4 : Klf2 and Klf4 are equally effective. Klf1 and Klf5 work, but with decreased efficiency.
Later efforts found that selecting for Nanog activation rather than Fbx15 activation induced by the Yamanaka factors created cells indistinguishable from embryonic stem cells, as opposed to "just some half-assed stem cells that are sort of cool."
OTC Transcription Simulators
Yamanaka's work, iirc correctly, involved inducing transcription via GMO-viral infection. This changes the threat profile from "occasionally, your biocompatible organ spits off cancer cells" to "your biocompatible organ infects you with a virus that will make every cell in your body spit off cancer cells." Not great.
Luckily, Deng et al (Beijing University, 2013) managed to epigenetically reregulate cells to induced pluripotent stem cells using only a cocktail of seven various small molecules. I've... got some reading to do, but as far as I can tell, none of them fit the "neo-caveperson" hacker ethos.... yet. I'll get on that. Good news, however, comes from Melton's 2008 work.
The HDAC (histone deacetylace) inhibitor Valproic acid not only works, but is 100-fold more efficient than Yamanaka's transcription factor abuse. It is hypotheosized to mimic cMyc.
This isn't yet good for our "neocaveperson/everyone/no entry barrier" method, because, well, prescription-shopping is hard enough for our Trans* friends. Luckily...
...butryic acid is an HDAC. And it's produced in...
Largely as a response to gut bacterium chomping up resistant starch, of which cold oats are one of the richest foods, followed by green banana flour. If you're familiar with fermenting human sewage under water for methane production, just take a crapload of oats, run an aquarium bubbler for an air stream, have a little sodium bicarb in the outlet air filter... and you'll be producing a decent technical grade of sodium butryate in no time. So...
No-Entry-Barrieer Yamanaka Factor Modulators/Emulators
Oct3/4 : No idea, I'll be back.
Sox1/2 : No idea, I'll be back.
cMyc : Butryc acid.
Klf2/4 : No idea, I'll be back.
We're not going to stop until everyone is growing biocompatible body parts in their basement, for recreational, medical, or other purpouses. Because hacking, same as I've always dropped it down.